Home » Content Strategy » Selenium Python: Mastering Frame and Window Management for Efficient Web Automation

Modern web applications have revolutionized a lot since their initial introduction. For instance, modern applications can function seamlessly on multiple devices like desktops, tablets, and even smartphones. However, to ensure the stability of this hybrid infrastructure, developers must run efficient test cases across all the elements present in these applications. While discussing web app testing, Selenium is one of the prominent names that come into the limelight. This is because Selenium has remained the market leader in modern web automation testing for over 10 years now.

Managing frames and working with multiple browser windows is a crucial part of modern application testing. So, with this article, we are going to understand how the developers can use the native features of Selenium to work with frames and windows while using Python test scripts. We will also discuss some of the most efficient tips and strategies that can help improve the overall productivity of the test environment.

Exploring Selenium Test Suite

Initially developed by Jason Huggins in 2004, Selenium is a popular and powerful open-source tool. Using the Selenium test suite, the developers can automate web browsers and also control the web elements to mimic human interactions. All the tools present under the test Selenium test suite assist the developers at different stages of the application testing process. Let us understand the core functioning of some of the most critical components under the test suite:

1. Selenium WebDriver

Being the core component of the entire test suite, the Selenium WebDriver is responsible for initiating the test cases and also allocating them to the respective web elements for the execution process. While using the Selenium WebDriver, the developers can use multiple APIs to communicate with the native elements of a web browser without a dedicated test engine. This is yet another reason that makes the Selenium WebDriver a superior version of the previously present Selenium remote controller.

2. Selenium Integrated Development Environment

The Selenium integrated development environment is a browser extension that aims to simplify the test case creation process. With the integration of this extension, the system can analyze user interactions and automatically generate test cases in real-time. So, it is a very effective solution for new automation testers to generate the test cases without writing the scripts manually.

3. Selenium Grid

Using the Selenium grid, the application testers can execute the test cases on multiple devices and browser combinations at the same time. This is a very effective process as it helps the developers to initiate parallel testing and execute thousands of different test instances at the same time. The proper use of the Selenium grid allows the developers to wrap up an entire test suite in just a few days.

Functioning of the Selenium Architecture

  • Selenium natively interacts with browsers using dedicated drivers. For instance, while testing Google Chrome, the developers have to download and install the ChromeDriver on their system. These drivers act as intermediaries between scripting languages like Python and the native architecture of the browser. So, the browser drivers are responsible for sending commands to the browser using the WebDriver API. They also receive responses to perform various actions and interactions on the web application.
  • The primary objective of the Selenium test suite is to automate the test cases while working with web applications and save a lot of company time and effort. Other than this, it is also effective for implementing web scraping and cross-browser compatibility. Selenium is also a great choice for performing automated regression testing on web apps that undergo frequent updates. Since the Selenium test suite supports a lot of programming languages like Ruby, Python, and JavaScript, the developers can use their preferences with this suite.
  • However, it is very important to remember that Selenium is only useful when the app developers are working with web applications. So for other app variants like native apps, hybrid apps, and cross-platform apps, the developers will be forced to look for an alternative solution.

Reasons to Use Python

Although Python is a comparatively new programming language, it has gained a lot of popularity due to its simplicity, robustness, and versatility. Let us go through some other most important parameters that justify the inclusion of Python in the modern testing infrastructure:

Support for Extensive Libraries

While using Python for writing automation test cases, app developers can access a comprehensive set of libraries and frameworks for multiple development and testing purposes. Some of the most important uses include machine learning, web development, and data analysis. Frameworks such as Flask, Pandas, and TensorFlow provide prebuilt modules and functionalities for accelerating the development process.

Availability of Community

Since the core infrastructure of Python is open-source, it has a vast community of developers who are constantly contributing to provide support, tutorials, and effective resources. Therefore the developers and testers can always resort to these for faster issue resolution and continuous improvement of the programming language

Improved Scalability and Performance

Indeed, Python is not as fast as other market competitors like C++ or C. However this is a highly scalable programming language. Moreover, by using libraries like Cython, the developers can not only implement a lot of optimizations but also incorporate C extensions to enhance the performance.

Capabilities for Integration

While using the Python programming language, the application developers can easily incorporate multiple programming languages like Java through various interfaces and foster interoperability in the application testing phase.

Presence of an Ecosystem

Python has a vibrant ecosystem with a lot of third-party modules and packages that can be installed using the Python package index. So, the developers can easily incorporate these packages into their app development projects.

Machine Learning and Data Analysis

Since Python is widely used in machine learning and data science due to libraries like NumPy and TensorFlow, developers can easily use this language for performing complex tasks and computations.

Python’s ease of learning, robust libraries, and broad applicability make it an excellent choice for beginners and professionals. Python is also one of the top languages in various domains as it can handle diverse tasks efficiently and accurately. The developers can use Python for multiple tasks ranging from web development to scientific computing using artificial intelligence.

Handling Frames and Multiple Browser Windows With Selenium

While using Python with Selenium, the developers can access various features to work with frames and multiple browser windows effectively. Let us go through some of the most simple steps that can help the developers to accomplish this goal:

1. Working with Frames

  • Frames are separate HTML documents that are embedded within one another. Using frames, the testers can partition a web page into multiple sections. Here, each section can load its own HTML content independently. In modern Selenium testing, the developers use frames for various purposes like displaying advertisements, integrating content from other sources, or creating a modular layout within a web page. To interact with elements inside a frame, the developers must switch their driver’s focus to that frame. 
  • To switch to a frame, the application developer simply has to enter the following code in the terminal window of Selenium:
  • After completing the interaction with the relevant frames in the Selenium testing process, the application developers have to enter the code “driver.switch.to.default_content()” to switch back to the main page.

2. Handling Multiple Browser Windows

  • To handle multiple browser windows while using Selenium, the developers have to switch between different window handles. The first step in this process is to open a new window by entering the following code in the terminal window of Selenium:


  • After the automation testers have created their new browser window, they have to enter the following code to switch to this window while using Selenium for automation testing:
  • In case the developers want to switch back to the original window, they simply have to enter the following command in the Selenium terminal window:

original_window = all_windows[0]


  • Finally, after completing the application testing process, it is important to enter the following command to close the new window and exit the testing phase:


  • During this process, the automation testers must remember to handle exceptions and ensure that they are using appropriate waits like ‘WebDriverWait’ for synchronizing the automation code with page loads and element visibility.

3. Additional Tips for Frame and Window Handling

  • Although we discussed most of the crucial steps in this process, we would advise the application developers to go through the official documentation of Selenium to explore more functionalities and methods related to this process. This is because the official website explains all of the required information using simple language and sample test cases.
  • Whenever the app developers are stuck with any feature of Selenium, they can refer to support options like live chat, emails, or over-the-phone support.
  • We also advise the application developers to download all the relevant dependencies or the Selenium files from the official website to avoid any data leaks or malicious attacks.
  • The application developers can further boost the Selenium automation testing process by using modern cloud platforms. Using these platforms, the developers can run the Selenium test cases on thousands of real devices using remote servers. AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform, LambdaTest integrates parallel testing to run the Selenium test cases on more than 3000 browser instances at the same time. Some of the additional features of LambdaTest include live test activity logs, the generation of comprehensive test reports, and native bug trackers.
  • Before beginning the Selenium testing process, the app developers must create a comprehensive test plan or test strategy that will document all the testing steps, tools, and other dependencies that will be implemented during the execution process. During this planning phase, the app-developing companies must include not only the development and testing teams but also the business and production teams. This process will help to create a basic awareness about the current status of the app development project.

The Bottom Line

All the modules that we discussed in this article must effectively help the developers manage frames and multiple windows while using Python with Selenium. However, the developers must remember that they might need to customize these strategies based on the specific app requirements and the development standards of the company.

We also recommend surveying the target audience and the application intentions to further customize these testing standards for more accurate results. The app companies should also conduct seminars and workshops to spread appropriate knowledge about all the revolutionary trends in modern Selenium-based automation testing. These practices are crucial to constantly expanding the target audience in this competitive app market.